USE TEACHING SOFTWARE FOR EVOLUTION SYLLABUS (BIOLOGY 12 – HIGH SCHOOL)

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING

THE VIETNAM INSTITUTE OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES

 

  

USE TEACHING SOFTWARE FOR EVOLUTION SYLLABUS

(BIOLOGY 12 – HIGH SCHOOL)

 

Major              : Theory and Teaching Method of Biology

ABBREVIATIONS

 

No. Acronyms Interpretation
1

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

5

 

6

 

7

 

8

 

9

 

10

 

11

 

12

 

BGĐT

CNTT&TT

ĐC

GV

HS

KBPMBD

PPDH

PMBD

PMDH

THPT

TN

SGK

Electronic lectures

Information technology and communications

Control

Teacher

Student

Planning of syllabus software

Teaching method

Syllabus software

Teaching software

High school

Practice

Textbook

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

  1. REASONS FOR TOPIC
    • Based on requirements of applying information technology in improving methods of teaching.
    • Based on characteristics of teaching program and textbook of biology 12, which have been compiled with limitation to providing available knowledge.
    • Based on objective shortcomings of the textbook with only including static images.
    • Based on the sphere of knowledge of evolution syllabuses (Biology 12 for high school education) includes knowledge of phenomena, modes, processes and rules of abstract evolution.
    • From a fact that information technology plays an important role in helping teachers to improve lesson plan according to innovative trend; it helps them to implement a number of different teaching methods for different students, diversifies forms of learning.

From above reasons, we choose the topic: “Use advanced teaching software (Biology 12 – High School)”

  1. OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH

Establishing and using advanced teaching software (Biology 12) is to improve the quality of teaching evolution syllabuses (Biology 12).

  1. SUBJECT AND OBJECT OF RESEARCH.
  • Subject: teaching software and method of using teaching software in teaching evolution syllabuses (Biology 12).
  • Object: process of teaching evolution syllabus (Biology 12).
  1. SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESIS
  • If defining well principles, procedure of establishing and using advanced teaching software (Biology 12) effectively, the quality of teaching evolution syllabuses will be improved.
  1. RESEARCH TASKS
  • Overview researches about establishing and using teaching software in the world and in Viet Nam.
  • Specify theoretical basis of teaching software: definition, classification, principle and process of establishing teaching software.
  • Define the real basis of establishing and using teaching software, real situation of establishing and using advanced teaching software (Biology 12).
  • Design advanced teaching software (Biology 12) and proposing methods of use.
  • Define methods of using advanced teaching software (Biology 12) to plan lessons at classes and instruct students in self-study.
  • Make pedagogic practice with an aim to testing the teaching software.
  1. METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH

To implement the topic, we performed theoretical researching methods, observe, survey, interview and make pedagogic practice.

  1. VALUE OF RESEARCH
  • Complete the system of principles, procedures of establishing and using teaching software in general and applying in establishing and using advanced teaching software (Biology 12) in particular which contributes to specifying trend of applying achievement of information technology in teaching biology.
  • Define method of establishing and using advanced teaching software (Biology 12).
  • Develop theoretically and methodically biology teaching towards applying achievements of information technology in teaching biology in general and teaching evolution syllabuses in particular.
  1. STRUCTURE OF THESIS

Besides introduction, conclusion, appendix, references, the thesis includes 3 main chapters:

+ Chapter 1: theoretical and reality basis of topic

+ Chapter 2: establish and use advanced teaching software (Biology 12)

+ Chapter 3: Pedagogic practice.

 

Chapter 1

THEORETICAL AND REAL BASIS OF THE TOPIC

  • Overview of research and information technology application in teaching.

       In the world, information technology applied widely in many fields including Viet Nam. There are two trends in applying information technology into teaching at the school: put information technology in teaching contents and use computer as a teaching tool. Especially, many people are of great interest in the latter one.

In Viet Nam: researches on applying information technology in teaching are still dispersed and not well-oriented. To Biology, research on applying information technology in teaching has been implemented since 2000 but this mainly stands at master thesises.

General remark

  • Applying information technology is not similar to improving teaching methods. Therefore, it must be correctly oriented in developing application in teaching.
  • Applying information technology in teaching and other fields are not identical. There’ re typical characteristics because it has certain affects on human. Thereby, human is both subject and object. Therefore, to improve efficiency of applying information technology in teaching, teachers need to find out the answer for the question that how to teach students to think, to logically infer and learn to foster their capacity of self-study and self-discovery.

1.2. Theoretical basis

  • Definition and classification of software

1.2.1.1 Definition

Software is a set of command statement written  by one programming languages or more than in a definite order to automatically function or solve a problem.

1.2.1.2. Classification

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1.2. Diagram of classifying software system.

1.2.2 Definition and classification of teaching software

1.2.2.1 Definition

Teaching software is formed by tools software and application software to order computer to perform requirements of content and method of teaching in order to reach targets of teaching and earning.

  • Classification
 

There are still different opinions about grouping teaching software. Based on pedagogic roles and functions of teaching software in relationship with target, content and method of teaching, we can divide teaching software into the following types:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1.3. Classification of teaching software according to level of interaction

We refer to the above classification to define orient for etablishing and using advanced teaching software (Biology 12).

  • Role of software in teaching

Teaching software provides learners with information and guides on studying activities.

1.2.3 Definition of syllabus software

1.2.3.1 Definition of planning of syllabus software

Planning of syllabus software is designed on Microsoft Word, Writer…in which we can display all requirements about target, content, teaching method, tools, teaching equipment, concrete activities of teacher and students as well as improvement, test and accessment.

  • Definition of syllabus software

Syllabus software is displayed through means of information technology (software, hardware) in which the whole plan of teaching activities is diversified and analyzed in different sides, therefore, the lessones have a close and logical structure as scheduled by planning of syllabus software.

  • Relationship between planning of syllabus software and syllabus software

Planning of syllabus software provides orders of information inputing into application software which functions presentation to form syllabus software. It shows progresses of implementing methods of arranging wareness activities for students. Therefore, teachers can study before using syllabus software at classes.

  • Direction of improving efficiency of applying information technology in teaching

It is possible to define directions of applying information technology in teaching as follows:

  • Access to tutorial application.
  • Access to exploratory application.
  • Access to communications application.
    • Relationship between different levels of applying information technology in teaching and different teaching software.
Self-study supporting software
Self-study software
Smart self-study software
Lesson supporting software

 

Figure 1.4. Diagram of relationship between different levels of information technology in teaching and types of teaching software.

In the scope of thesis, we access exploratory application, initially access to communication applications. Therefore, the advanced teaching software (Biology 12) can be for both teachers’ use in giving lectures and students’ self-study at home.

  • Real basis

1.3.1 Reality of infrastructure preparation for applying information technology in teaching just meets requirement of some teachers in teaching with application of information technology.

1.3.2 Reality of teachers’ awareness of applying information technology in teaching

In the fact, 80, 47 % of teachers applied information technology in teaching towards accessing to tutorial application, 17, 51 % accessed exploratory application, only 2, 02 % of them accessed communication application.

With such reality of teachers’ awareness of applying information technology in teaching, it is hard to bring much meaningful progress in term of method and quality of teaching.

  • Reality of applying information technology in teaching.

1.3.3.1 Teachers’ awareness of teaching software

There has not sufficient awareness of teaching software.

  • Reality of establishing and using teaching software
  • Reality of establishing teaching software
  • Procedure of establishing teaching software

Results show that when establishing teaching software, teachers mainly implement 3 steps: defining teaching target; establishing, collecting, pedagogic processing, digital documentation processing, teaching software establishment.

There will not good teaching software with such designing procedure.

As choosing an application software to input data to form syllabus software: most of teachers use Powerpoint.

As designing syllabus software 79 percent of teacher chose the second interfaced design.

  • Primary teaching method used by most of teachers in establishing syllabus software is visual method in combination with illustration and oral-suggestion.
  • Result of establishing advanced syllabus software for evolution syllabuses (Biology 12).

Teachers just design the software as requested by supervisor for teaching festivals or contests of good teachers at different levels.

  • Reality of using syllabus software

Syllabus software is used by teachers to be support in making presentations, explanation, illustration, and suggestion to create aspiration for students. In fact, the above usage of teaching method is just a succession of traditional teaching method with better tools.

  • Obstacles teachers face in establishing and using syllabus software.

There are not instructions about establishing and using syllabus software as well as standards to evaluate quality of syllabus software. Therefore, designing is still subjective, computer, project using skill is limited and project quality is low.

Remark

Today, the statement of the “Syllabus software” concept is not unified. Teachers are still vague in identifying, which is syllabus software, criteria for lesson assessment with information technology application have no common standard and there are no specific instructions in establishing and using syllabus software. Therefore, the implementation of technology application in teaching Biology in general and Evolution syllabus (Biology 12) in particular at high schools has not shown its high actuality yet; teachers established and used syllabus software subjectively, hence, there has no positive change in improving teaching method.

1.3.4. Teachers’ needs of vital knowledge of information technology application in teaching

– Provided with knowledge of informatics for teaching.

– Equipped digital material in teaching Biology in general and Evolution syllabuses (Biology 12) in particular.

– Having criteria for value assessment of simulation program, syllabus software, teaching software by Web… as a basis and target for establishing teaching method.

– Provided with rules of establishing teaching software, instruction procedure for establishing and using teaching software.

General comments

Applying information technology in teaching only demonstrates its theory and not go into reality, thus, the efficiency of information applied learning time is not high.

Summary of chapter 1

The content of chapter 1 provides an overview on the situation of information technology application in teaching in the world and in Vietnam; updates and analyses logical basis of software and teaching software along with improves the efficiency of information technology application in topic-related teaching.

In terms of practice: Presenting factual basis directly related to research issues such as: the situation of equipping facilities for information technology application in teaching; the situation of teachers’ awareness on orientation of information technology application in teaching; teachers’ needs about essential knowledge in information technology application in teaching.

That is logical and practical basis as the firm fulcrum for the subject and then shows its urgency.

Chapter 2

ESTABLISH AND USE TEACHING SOFTWARE FOR EVOLUTION SYLLABUS (BIOLOGY 12)

2.1. Rules of establishing and using teaching software

2.1.1. Ensuring teaching objectives

When designing teaching software, teachers analyze the content of the lessons and base on specific objects to identify targets which students have to achieve when finishing learning.

Each goal must be concretized by a system of questions, handouts with various types associated with the observation of images, videos and animation files to orientate activities and self study for students. Organizing for students to solve questions in handouts is also the implementation of set teaching-learning target.

E.g.: The goal of part I of Lesson 39 “The establishment of the adaptation of organisms” – chapter II – Evolution (Biology 12)”:

Explain the transition into black of Biston betunia in UK industrial areas.

To achieve this goal, we have specified this target by a system of questions, exercises, digital data to orientate activities and self-study for students as follows:

You study the textbook of part I.1, page 158 and transition into black simulation program of Biston betunia in UK industrial areas and comment the quantity of black butterflies according to time. Explain why is there such variation?

After watching the simulation program, students can explain the transition into black of the butterfly species.

2.1.2. Ensuring the accuracy of teaching contents

When designing teaching software, it is important to rely on teaching-learning content to produce the types of questions, diagrams, graphs, tables, images and simulation programs, etc. When designing syllabus software, teaching content has to demonstrate clearly and suitably with the content of textbook. The time distribution for each knowledge subject and unit must be adequate to students’ awareness level and advantageous to teachers in organizing activities in the class and l. Moreover, this earning activities must illustrate the close relationship between the system of questions, exercises, handouts with digital data so as for students to draw new knowledge after watching.

For example: We have developed multimedia combination of questions, handouts, two simulation programs of formation of giraffe species to teach Lesson 35 (See Section 2.4.2.).

2.1.3. Ensuring visualization of teaching content by multimedia

Confirming this principle is the assurance of providing maximum knowledge for students. The content of Evolution section (Biology 12) is the information of phenomena, processes, mechanisms and rules. Evolutionary phenomena happen rather slowly (several hundred million years), thus, it is very difficult for students to realize directly and imagine. On the other hand, the nature evolution is the mechanism at the molecular level, its external signs are only a form of expression, hence,  it causes difficulties for students’ awareness. Consequently, it is necessary to visualize the contents in textbook.

For example: Visualizing the learning content of part IV.2, Lesson 38 by multimedia when teaching part IV.2 as follows:

Studying the content of part IV.2, page 154, seeing simulation program of natural selection forms, discussing in 7 minutes in groups and completing the following handout:

Content of comparision Stable selection Movement selection Differentiation selection
Concept      
Conditions      
Results      
Examples      

After researching the textbook and watching the simulation program, students will finish their handouts.

2.1.4. Ensuring the improvement of teaching-learning forms and methods

Teaching method innovation is the renewal of ways to conduct teaching manner in organic relationship with other structure factors of teaching process in order to fully exploit the advantages of specific teaching methods and maximize students’ positiveness, activeness and creativeness.

To implement the above tasks, in syllabus software, we mainly use visual method in combination with the procedure of searching and group activities organizing. These methods constitute a combination of active teaching procedure.

For example: To strengthen the teaching quality of part I.2, Lesson 36, basing this procedure, we perform learning activity as follows:

You study the content of part I.2 of Lesson 36, and see the simulation program of small evolution process, discuss in 7 minutes and finish the handout.

Compare the concept of small and large evolution.

Issue Simple evolution Complex evolution
Content    
Time scale    
Research methods    

To help students to self check the results of handouts in the learning process, we design objective test questions related to above requirements with feedback results (See in DVD).

2.1.5. Ensuring the improvement in test and assessment

With the advantage of information technology, when designing the section of test and evaluation in lesson software, we need to assure the following requirements: Students can  examine and assess their own learning outcomes objectively and truthfully after completing any lesson, chapter, part at any time; and thorough many types of different objective test questions.

2.1.6. Ensuring to strengthen interaction between learner and teaching software

When pedagogical processed, teachers have to transform information in textbook into issues for students to explore and improve the content. To mobilize all the senses involved in learning activities, to complete learning tasks, students have to observe (hear, see), think to explore and can hand with learning objectives to occupy new knowledge.

Example: When teaching-learning part III, Lesson 37 “Non-random copulating”, we changed the content of information in textbook into questions in accordance with images, for example, the following exercise:

2.1.7 Princliple of shorten time, make up space in teaching

This is a original principle to establish and use teaching software in teaching evolution syllabus (Biology 12). Evolution processes and rules happened during a long time of year millions, structures of processes happened in molecules, so dimensions are so small that we can not see wit naked eyes.  Therefore, time and space make hard to survey directly. It is necessary to visualize evolution contents in this principle with moving pictures, films…

Ex: To teach Lesson 44, section II- Creatures in large lands, we collect some reproducing films as follows:

 

 

All principles as above have a closest relationship with each other. They are direction principles going through processes of design of teaching software for evolution syllabus (Biology12).

 

2.2. Process of  teaching software establishment for evolution syllabus

Figure 2.3. Process of designing teaching software – Evolution syllabus (Biology 12)

2.2.1. Identifying teaching-learning target

2.2.1.1. Pedagogical requirement

– Follow up skill and knowledge standard

2.2.1.2. Implementation method

Accoring to Mager (1975), when writing objectives, we need to mention 3 components: Specifying decisive actions for students. Determining important conditions for students to perform the tasks of learning activities. Developing criteria for assessment of target achievement level of students.

For example: The goal of Lesson 40: Species

Knowledge:

– Describing the concept of species. Presenting characteristics of standards to distinguish familiar species.

– Distinguishing the organization levels of species: individual, graphicapopulation, race (geographical race, biological race and ecological race).

– Explaining the application of criteria to distinguish familiar species.

– Defining the roles of isolation mechanisms for evolution process.

Skills:

Traing the skills of observation, analysis of shape and letter channels to find out new knowledge. Analysing, synthesizing and generalizing knowledge.

Attitudes:

Seeing the diversity of species.

2.2.2. Analyse logically structure of teaching-learning content – Evolution sylabus

2.2.2.1. Pedagogical requirement

Finding out basis and core knowledge, orientation for establishing teaching software. Identifying knowledge which can de designed into questions, exercises, handouts, etc. Naming knowledge units, static images in lessons which can be designed into simulation programs to increase visualization in teaching. On that basis, a system of questions related to content will be projected and put in planning of teaching software.

2.2.2.2. Implementation method

– Analyze the development of the concepts of evolution in secondary biology program.

–  Analyze logically the structure of evolution (Biology 12)

– Analyze the relationship between theoretical knowledge and evolutionary events in high  school biology program.

2.2.3. Collection, pedagogic processing and technical processing for the system of digital teaching materials in accordance with contents of teaching-learning

2.2.3.1. Pedagogical requirements

Digital materials should be compatible with contents of teaching-learning in the planning, and the sphere of knowledge in textbooks. Images and audio should be fidelity, clear, crisp;  ensure the quality of standard of teaching facilities and overcome the limitations of textbook. These materials serve specific the content of teaching-learning and improve the visualization in the process of teaching-learning. It is very important to create good conditions for teachers to organize activities for students to self study and explore. Animation images, audios, films, video clips, flash… along with many types of questions, handouts, graphs, tables, etc have to create an “aural-visual combination”.

     2.2.3.2. Implementation method

– Collecting the system of Evolution (Biology 12) teaching multimedia materials.

– Pedagogical and engineering processing the system of digital teaching materials related to the content of teaching-learning

Result: We added 324 static images, 79 animation images and films.

2.2.4. Design planning of syllabus software to prepare for designing syllabus software

            2.2.4.1. Pedagogical requirements

– The structure of the planning of syllabus software consists of 8 parts (similar to traditional syllabus plan).

– Pedagogic  functions of planning of syllabus software: has the function of a traditional syllabus plan. Planning of syllabus software clearly specifies the order of information input including the texts, sound, images, videos, animation, graphic, etc into application and form of planning of syllabus software. Planning of syllabus software also demonstrates implementing progress of organizing awareness activities for students, in which it apparently illustrates teaching-learning activities for teachers to research before using planning of syllabus software effectively at classes.

2.2.4.2. Implementation method

The planning of syllabus software which is compiled on word should show clearly all requirements about target, content and method, facilities and materials of teaching-learning, as well as specific activities of teachers ans students, the stage of consolidation, test and evaluation , etc.

We designed 15 plannings of syllabus software related to Evolution syllabus.

2.2.5. Input information into application software to form syllabus software

2.2.5.1. Pedagogical requirements

  1. Structure of syllabus software consists of 6 parts:

Checking previous lessons; Targets; New lesson; Test and assessment; Homework; Instruction for new lesson preparation. The following is the structure of the syllabus software which is designed on Violet software.

  1. Pedagogical function of syllabus software

In syllabus software, headings are arranged logically according contents of lesson in order to create favorable for teaching and learning and self-study. Teaching methods are visual methods through imaging channel, especially moving images.

2.2.5.2. Implementation method

When inputting information, it is necessary to take note as follows:

  • Show fully contents, small and big titles of the teaching software in planning of syllabus software into application software (see picture 2.2.5.1)
  • Show the method factors on presentation pages.
  • Presentation pages should be aesthetic to encourage the studying aspiration and teach students.
  • The letter size should be suitable with the number of learners, if it is too big then the information will be weak, if it is too small then the learners at the end of classes cannot see them.
  • Explore most functions of Violet software to increase the interaction between learners and computer.
  • In form: the effects of letters, images, and films should be united, do not abuse effects and flashy decoration diverting the notice of students.

Result: we had designed 15 teaching software making sure high interaction between teachers, students and teaching software.

2.2.6. Design a website to manage the planning of syllabus software, syllabus software and teaching documentation library

2.2.6.1. Pedagogic requirement

a. The structure of a teaching software teaching evolution b. Pedagogic functions

§  Provide digital materials to serve teachers in teaching evolution syllabuses;

§  Teacher uses teaching software to teach and students can use it in self-study.

§  Create an acting environment for students: active, positive and creative; Support creative activities of teachers: they can supplement specific contents for their students in particular.

 

2.2.6.2. Implementation method

Step 1: Create interface for hosting websites, chapters, lessons

Step 2: Create link

2.2.7. Test-run software and make a DVD record.

2.3. Instruction for using teaching software in teaching evolution syllabus

After studying introduction, opening, manual instruction, teachers and students implement following steps:

Step 1: Install supporting programs to watch digital documentations

Step 2: Open program disk

Step 3: Study the planning of syllabus software

Step 4: Study syllabus software

Step 5: Study documents with stable images, moving images, films, etc

2.4. Procedures of using teaching software in teaching evolution syllabus (Biology 12) to organize teaching processes at classes

2.4.1. General procedure:

Item order Implementation steps Role of teacher Role of students Knowledge products
1 Give questions, exercises, studying notes, etc Give instruction Self-study  
2 Study documents, teaching means related to content of lesson Organize Self-performance Answers by individuals
3 Discuss in group Work as referees, consultants Performance in groups Answers by groups
4 Conclude, correct knowledge Analyze, summarize, conclude Self-check and adjust Scientific knowledge
5 Apply new knowledge Check, assess Self-express creativeness Apply in study and real life

2.4.2. Some examples of method of using teaching software in teaching evolution syllabus (Biology 12) to organize teaching processes at classes

Example 1: Teaching lesson 35 “Classic evolution theory” (Biology 12)

Activity: Getting to know Evolution of Lama and Dacuyn

Step 1: Learn orientation

Teachers present contents of two simulation program

Students: Observe the two simulation programs of processes of giraffe

Step 2: Self-study for students

Teacher organizes students in discussion groups, asks the groups to nominate a secretary writing down discussion results. Teacher give instructions and observe students.

Students: Groups of student receive studying notes, study textbook documents, pages 140-141, discuss in groups and complete the contents of studying notes in a scheduled time.

Step 3: Discussion in group

Teacher organizes discussion in groups, asks one of them as a representative to express the whole discussion results.

Teacher asks other groups to comment, supplement for the representative group

Students: Representative of a group presents the discussion results of the whole group, other groups comment and supplement;

Step 4: Conclude and correct know ledges

Teacher comments discussion results of groups, summarizes and gives correct knowledge

Students self-check, adjust and take note.

Step 5: Applying and enlarge knowledge

2.5. Procedure of using teaching software in teaching evolution syllabus (Biology 12) to guide students in self-study.

After installing, open recorded disk – Teaching software for teaching evolution syllabus

Click on chapterà lessonàselect syllabus softwareàok

2.5.1. Study the target of lesson

2.5.2. Study new lesson

To foreword questions, need: analyze questions, observe digital documentations and make an outline for answers.

To testing questions: before answering, learner needs to:

+ Carefully read instructions and questions, observe thoroughly digital documentations

+ Actively think of each question instead of only reading options in order to find out correct answers.

+ Try to make a correct answer before reading options, then find out correct answer in those options

+ Effectively use time and do not spend too much time for hard questions

+ Select answers on the basis of mentioned questions, not on the basis of its correctness in other situations.

+ Choose suppositions similar to ones selected by experts in this field.

+ Select larger answers unless select one between two

+ Retest all selections.

+ Use information from other questions to answer a concrete question.

+ Base on self-understanding to refer answer will be better than ignore that question

After reading the content of lesson, you choose other part in succession: Checking, evaluation, homework, new lesson instruction with similar movements.

To end the lesson, click on x sign on the above right corner of lesson. To exit program, click on x sign on the above right corner of screen.

Summary of Chapter 2

The content of chapter 2 shows the system of principles of establishing and using teaching software in general to orient establishment and use of the teaching software in teaching evolution syllabus (Biology). Therefore, each one is analyzed via a concrete example by establishing teaching software for teaching evolution syllabus, expressing necessity to grasp mentioned system of principles. Those are inseparable teaching principles, help to establish teaching software for teaching evolution syllabus effectively. They at the same time is the basis to define procedure of building and using instructions the software in order to organize the process of teaching at class and guide students to self-study with the software.

 

Chapter 3

PEDAGOGIC PRACTICE

3.1. Target of practice

To assess effectively establishment and use of teaching software in teaching evolution syllabus (Biology 12) according to planned scientific supposition.

3.2. Practice content

Experiment lessons: 8 lessons of chapter 2 “Causes and mode of evolution”

3.3. Practice method

Select school, class and teacher to take part before practice. Make pedagogic practice.

The practice is carried out in two years, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 in 2 provinces; each province is chosen 3 schools, each school is chosen 2 classes as representative. 4 tests in the practice and 2 other ones after practice will be implemented to measure the durability of knowledge. Number of students for practice and tests collected in and after the practice of each semester is as follows:

Year Form Number of students Number of tests collected in practice Number of tests after practice
2008-2009 Comparison 290 1159 577
Practice 298 1184 586
2009-2010 Comparison 300 1197 590
Practice 294 1173 583
Total Comparison 590 2356 1167
Practice 592 2357 1169
        Total 1182 4713 2336

Each class selected for the practice is assessed in two form, namely Comparison and Practice.

Results of 2 -year-practice are the basis to confirm effectiveness and feasibility of establishing and using teaching software in teaching evolution syllabus.

3.4. Practice results

3.4.1. Quantitative analysis

3.4.1.1. Results of quantitative analysis for tests in practice

Table 3.1. Frequency of marks in practice

Project n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Practice 2357 0 0 0.13 4.29 14.1 21.2 29.4 20.7 7.64 2.55
Comparison 2356 0 3.52 7.98 14.4 26.4 25.6 15.6 6.45 0 0

Comparing data in the above table, we see that the average value of tests’ marks in practice of practice applied class is higher than that of comparison applied class.

From the figures of table 3.1, we can draw a chart allocating mark frequency of comparison applied class and practice applied class (vertical axis shows percentage of students getting mark x1, horizontal axis shows mark).  

Table 3.1.  Chart allocates mark frequency of marks in practice

Table 3.2. Frequency of higher mark convergence of tests in practice

Project n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Practice 2357 100 100 100 99.9 95.6 81.5 60.3 30.9 10.2 2.55
Comparison 2356 100 100 96.5 88.5 74.1 47.7 22 6.45 0 0

The above data reveals that percentage of tests getting x1 value and over.

From the above figures, we can draw a chart showing frequency of higher mark convergence of tests in practice. Table 3.2. Chart show frequency of higher mark convergence of tests before practice.

In figure 3.2, higher convergence line of mark frequency of practice applied class is on the right side compared to that line of comparison applied class. Therefore, the results show that marks collected from practice applied class are higher than those of comparison applied class.

  • Calculate typical values of practice and comparison samples.
  • Use U standard to confirm H0

Results show that: TN >ĐC. The absolute value of U is 26.569, higher than the standard value (z=1,96). Therefore, the difference between TN and ĐC is statistically meaningful.

  • Analyze variance to confirm this conclusion. The table of analyzing variance (ANOVA) shows that the value F=705.941 > Fcrit=3.845. Consequently, the HA hypothesis is rejected; it means that the two different teaching projects affected the studying quality of students differently.

3.4.1.2. Qualitative analysis of results of practice after practice

We made two 15 minute tests to test generally students’ knowledge of taught lessons in 30 days before. The results are as follows:

Table 3.6. Marks frequency of practice after practice

Project n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Practice 1169 0 0 1.71 4.88 14.3 18.4 31.7 18.5 8.04 2.57
Comparison 1167 0 4.37 8.23 22.8 25.9 20.3 11.7 6.77 0 0

 

In comparison with the above table, we realize that the average value of test marks of after practice by practice applied class are higher than those of comparison  applied class.

From figures of table 3.6, we make a distribution diagram of mark frequency of comparison applied class and practice applied class (vertical axis shows % of students who get xi mark; horizontal axis shows marks). Figure 3.3.  Diagram of distributing marks frequency of practice after practice

 

From figures of table 3.6, it implements to make a table of toward convergence frequency to compare the frequency of tests which get marks from xi and more than.

Table 3.7. Toward mark convergence frequency of tests after practice

Project n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Practice 1169 100 100 100 98.3 93.4 79.1 60.7 29.1 10.6 2.57
Comparison 1167 100 100 95.6 87.4 64.6 38.7 18.4 6.77 0 0

 

From figures of the above table, we make a diagram of higher mark convergence frequency of tests in practice. Figure 3.4. Diagram of higher mark convergence frequency of tests after practice

 

In figure 3.4, the higher convergence line of mark frequency of practice applied class is in the right in comparison with that of comparison applied class. Therefore, the marks of tests after practice of practice applied class are higher than those of comparison applied class.

* Calculate typical values of practice and comparison samples

* Use U standard to confirm H0 supposition; result shows that: TN >ĐC . Absolute value of U = 26.569, higher than the  standard value (z=1,96). Therefore, the difference between TN and ĐC is statistically meaningful.

* Analyze variance to confirm this conclusion. The table of analyzing variance (ANOVA) shows that the value F=705.941 > Fcrit=3.845. Consequently, the HA hypothesis is rejected; it means that the two different teaching projects affected the studying quality of students differently.

* In conclusion, organizing classes by teaching software in teaching evolution syllabus (Biology 12) improved students’ aspiration in study and embedded knowledge in their memory then improved the quality of study and durability of knowledge of students.

3.4.2. Qualitative analysis of practice’s results.

3.4.2.1. Analyze the results by answering questions in tests in and after practice at different levels: knowing, understanding, applying for 2 types of class (Comparison and Practice).

3.4.2.2. Survey feedbacks from teachers and students about the value of the software.

Conclusion

Analyzing the results from two practices in Bac Ninh province and Bac Giang province in the  quantitative and qualitative aspects shows that using the teaching software in teaching evolution syllabus (Biology 12) may improve the quality of teaching-learning.

4.3. Conclusion of chapter 3.

The practice indicates that establishing and using the teaching software in teaching evolution syllabus (Biology 12) are very useful in improving the mental education of students in and after the practice. That can be described in more details as follows:

  • Extremely proving individual capacity which leads to studying individualization extremely. Improving group working in studying process.
  • Embedding the relationship between theory and events of evolution. Completing definitions of evolution.
  • Students can apply learned knowledge in explaining real phenomenon of living being world around them.
  • Increasing percentage of excellent and good students, decreasing that of medium and weak students. Creating interest in studying biology of majority of students.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. Conclusion

1.1. Teaching approach towards the application of information technology achievements in teaching is a modern teaching method in the context of modern information society, and helps move from literacy teaching to search, collect and process information in order to achieve the training objectives. Research with great potential in changing teaching method is the information technology application in establishing and using teaching software, because it integrates the communications media, overcomes the passive present of textbooks and traditional teaching facilities. Therefore, the topic “Using teaching software for teaching evolution syllabus (Biology)” has actually contributed to improving teaching method, solving the difficulties in teaching – learning of teachers and students.

1.2. Through theoretical researching and the situation of teaching software use in teaching Biology in general, evolution syllabus (Biology 12) in particular, the thesis has proposed and completed a system of teaching software use and construction rules in general (including 7 principles). Of which contains specific rules in the teaching software use and construction:  ensuring the visuality of teaching method content via multimedia; securing interaction enhance between the learner and teaching software; assuring to shorten time and make space in their teaching process. Each of the principles sets out an illustrative example to demonstrate clearly a thorough system of these principles in the process of teaching software use and construction.

1.3. The thesis has proposed the processes for establishing teaching software for teaching evolution syllabus (Biology 12). The analysis ofpedagogicalrequirementsandimplementation methodsofeachstep is to helptheteachersusethis process tobuild anddeveloptheir ownteaching softwareeasilywithoutinformation technologyprofessionals’ help. Digital teaching means are built, collected, pedagogy and engineering processed, which include:atotal of324staticimagefiles, of which 78 files were used to design syllabus software and 246 files with advanced content were for  teachersandstudentsfor reference.Most of thestaticimagesareprocessedbytheMS.Paint, Photoshop software tofacilitate for putting section-related questions . Total of image filesis79, of which 31 files were used to design syllabus software and 48 files with advanced content were for  teachersandstudentsfor reference.

1.4. The thesis determined methods for using teaching software in teaching evolution syllabus (Biology 12) to guide students to self study and organize lessons for learning in order to develop students’ computer skills.

1.5. The specific product of the topic is 01 teaching software recorded on the DVD with adequate and user-friendly interface.

These above contributions add teaching method and theory towards the information technology application in teaching Biology in general and Evolution syllabus (Biology 12) in particular.

  1. Recommendation

Over the implementation of the project, we have some following suggestions:
2.1. Research scope of the thesis only concentrates on the Evolution syllabus (Biology 12). It is essential to further study and improve teaching software in teaching Biology and continue researching and developing themes in other subjects.

2.2. It is necessary too focus on researching the application of information technology achievements in the construction and development of self-learning and intelligent self-study software.
2.3. Integrate the principles of construction, methods and for using teaching software and system of materials into regular training programs for high school teachers.
2.4. In order that the application of information technology in teaching is effective, it is vital to increase investment in the modern equipment systems such as computers, multifunctional projectors, high-speed internet, exclusive classrooms …

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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