Đọc – Tiếng Anh 4 – EN32

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Bài luyện tập trắc nghiệm 01

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The Harder Hard Sell

It was Lord Leverhulme, the British soap pioneer, who is said to have complained that he knew half of his advertising budget was wasted, but didn’t know which half. The real effects of advertising have become more measurable, exposing another, potentially more horrible, truth for industry: in more cases, it can be a lot more than half of the budget that is going down the drain.

The advertising industry is passing through one of the most disorienting periods in its history. This is due to a combination of long-term changes, such as the growing diversity of media and the arrival of new technologies, notably the internet. With better-informed consumers, the result is that some of the traditional methods of advertising and marketing simply no longer work.

The media are the message

But spending on advertising is up again and is expected to grow this year by 4.7 per cent to $343 billion. How will the money be spent? There are plenty of alternatives to straightforward advertising. They range from public relations to direct mail and include customer promotions (like paying a retailer for shelf space), telemarketing, exhibitions, sponsoring events, product placements and more. These have become such an inseparable part of the industry that big agencies are now willing to provide most of them.

As ever, the debate in the industry centers on the best way to achieve results. It is more cost-effective, for instance, to use a public relations agency to invite a journalist out to lunch and persuade him to write about a product than to pay for a display ad in that journalist’s newspaper? Should you launch a new car with glossy magazine ads, or – as some car makers now do – simply park demonstration models in shopping malls and motorway service stations? And is it better to buy a series of ads on a specialist cable TV channel or splurge $2.2m on a single 30-second commercial during this year’s Super Bowl?

Net Sales

Such decisions are ever harder to make. For a start, people are spending less time reading newspapers and magazines, but are going to the cinema more, listening to more radios and turning in ever-increasing numbers to a new medium, the Internet (see chart 1). No one knows just how important the Internet will eventually be as an advertising medium. Some advertisers think it will be a highly cost-effective way of reaching certain group of consumers. But not everyone uses Internet and nor is it seen as being as being particularly good at building brands. So far, the Internet accounts for only a tiny slice of the overall advertising pie (see chart 2) although its share has begun to grow rapidly.

Despite all of these new developments, many in the advertising business remain confident. Rupert Howell, chairman of the London arm of McCann Erickson, points out that TV never killed radio, which in turn never killed radio, which in turn never killed newspapers. They did pose huge creative challenges, but that’s OK, he maintains: “The advertising industry is relentlessly inventive; that’s what we do.”

What kinds of method of advertising are big agencies now willing to provide?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Advertising on magazines
b. Advertising on radios
c. Advertising on newspapers
d. alternatives to straightforward advertising Câu trả lời đúng

What are the main causes of the most disorienting periods in the history of advertising industry?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Appearance of many other Marketing methods
b. Better informed consumers due to a lot of other means of communication
c. Disappearance of traditional method of advertising such as radio, newspaper…
d. Long term-changes, such as the growing diversity of media and the development of new technologies Câu trả lời đúng

What is expected to grow by 4.7 per cent to $343 billion?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Spending on advertising this year Câu trả lời đúng
b. Spending on customers promotions in many year
c. Spending on public relations in the coming year
d. Spending on mail and internet this year

According to the passage the real effects of advertising expose another, potentially …

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. More horrible Câu trả lời đúng
b. More valuable
c. More hopeful
d. Brighter

What message do you think this passage send you?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. The advantages of traditional methods of advertising
b. The development of advertising Câu trả lời không đúng
c. The disadvantages of internet advertising
d. The big challenges on advertising industry Câu trả lời đúng

Advertising on internet has begun to…

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Kill radios in the advertising field
b. Replace traditional methods of advertising in recent year
c. grow rapidly in recent years Câu trả lời đúng
d. Decrease slightly in recent year

What are the key to the confidence of many advertising business?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Difficulty
b. Challenges
c. Hard sell
d. Creativity Câu trả lời đúng

What are alternatives to straightforward advertising?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. They are ranged from public relations to direct mail Câu trả lời đúng
b. They may be Exhibitions and direct mail
c. They may be telemarketing and email Câu trả lời không đúng
d. It should be sponsoring events

Who is said to have complained that he knew half of his advertising budget was wasted?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Lord Leverhulme
b. Lord Leverhulme, an inventor of soap in Great Britain
c. A British man
d. Lord Leverhulme, the British soap pioneer Câu trả lời đúng

Inviting a journalist out to lunch and persuading him to write about a product is said to be

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. More popular way
b. More expensive way
c. More cost effective approach Câu trả lời đúng
d. Well known method

Bài luyện tập trắc nghiệm 02 – LTTN02

Into the Unknown

In the days of Stanley and Livingstone, much of the world was still unexplored. Today, most places on the surface of the world have been mapped. Some places, however, are still waiting to be discovered. Some of these are underground, in deep caves called blue holes.

A blue holes is a special kind of inlandunderwater cave. The cave forms when the earth above it falls in. Some of the world’s most spectacular blue holes are located in the Bahamas. The islands there may have more than a thousand blues holes. These caves are very deep – for example, Dean’s Blue Hole, the deepest blue hole in the world, is more than 660 feet (200 meters) deep.

Diving into blue holes is extremely dangerous. Near the top of a blue hole, there is a layer of poisonous gas. This gas causes itching, dizziness, and – in large amounts – death. Divers must also be fast. They have to get in and out of a cave before their oxygen run out. Additionally, it’s very dark in these caves, so it is very easy to get lost. Divers therefore have to follow a guideline as they swim through a blue hole. If they lose the guideline, they may not find their way back out of the cave.

If blue holes are so dangerous, why do explorers and scientists risk their lives to explore them? One reason is that these underwater caves can provide valuable scientific information. They provide clues about geology, archaeology, and even astrobiology – the study of life in the universe. For example, some blue hole creatures, such as the remipede, probably haven’t changed for millions of years. Divers have also found bacteria that can live without oxygen. Similar life forms probably existed on Earth billions of years ago.

In addition, the oxygen-free environment of the blue holes preserves bones of humans and animals that fell into the caves long ago. By studying the blue holes, we can understand what life was like in prehistorictimes. As cave diver Kenny Broad says, “I can think of no other environment on Earth that is so challenging to explore and gives us so much scientifically.”

Windows on an Alien World?

An inland blue hole’s water is very still and has different layers. A layer of fresh rainwater floats on top of salt water. The fresh water keeps oxygen from the atmosphere from reaching the salt water. Brightly colored bacteria live where the two layers meet. Scientists believe these bacteria could teach us about life in outer space. Astrobiologist Kevin Hand says the bacteria may be similar to forms of life that might exist on Jupiter’s fourth largest moon, Europa. “Our study of life’s extremes on Earth,” says Hand, can help increase “our understanding of habitable environments off Earth.”

Exploration of blue holes are said to be

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Extremely Important to researchers and scientists
b. Extremely pleasant and safe
c. Extremely risky, threatening but significant to scientists Câu trả lời đúng
d. Extremely poisonous and insignificant to scientists

According to the passage, today some of blue holes in deep cave need to be

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Explored Câu trả lời đúng
b. Mapped
c. Protected
d. Got a line

Where are the world’s most spectacular blue holes discovered?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. In Clarence Town
b. In Egypt
c. In Bahamas Câu trả lời đúng
d. In Guam

What are divers are suggested?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Not to discover the cave alone but in group
b. Both A and B Câu trả lời đúng
c. To follow a guideline when swimming through a blue hole Câu trả lời không đúng
d. To move fast when being in blue holes

How many blue holes are there in Bahamas?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. People found more than 200 holes
b. People found more than 10000 holes
c. People found more than 1000 holes Câu trả lời đúng
d. People found more than 660 holes

Who does exploring the unknown suit?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. All people who like discovering the unknown things
b. Scientists who need to explore for their work
c. The people who are healthy, brave, and wanna discover the unknown for their work Câu trả lời đúng
d. Both A,B and C Câu trả lời không đúng

Why do explorers risk their lives in such dangerous caves?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Because they like the risks and interest in exploring the unknown thing
b. Because of the money that they can earn from this exploration
c. Because of the scientific information in these underwater caves Câu trả lời đúng
d. Because of the clues about astrobiology that they can get from this exploration

Some blue hole creatures have …

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Changed for millions years Câu trả lời không đúng
b. Differed from each other for millions years
c. Unchanged for thousands years
d. Stayed the same for millions years Câu trả lời đúng

What are blue holes?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. A kind of inland under water cave Câu trả lời đúng
b. A kind of circular cave
c. A kind of carven which contain saltwater
d. A kind of undersea cave

Why diving into blue holes is extremely dangerous?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. because of hydrogen gas
b. because of lack of oxygen
c. because of poisonous gas Câu trả lời đúng
d. because of dangerous animals

Bài luyện tập trắc nghiệm 04

Show me the money

Five teenagers tell us how they’re already earning their own money.

A. Hannah Ferguson

‘The original idea was to set up a website so that other girls my age could order make-up cheaply. You see, I realized that if I bought lots of make-up from Hong Kong and then sold it through a website, I could make a profit. In the beginning, the money came from my parents, but I paid them back at the end of the first month. Gradually the site grew and now I send make-up all over the country, and we offer advice and tips online. I’ve got a couple of people who work for me part-time, like Alison – she’s our beautician. I want to finish my education, and hopefully keep the website running at the same time, and then go into business in a big way after university. The most important thing at this stage is that I’ve proved to myself that I can do it. The money is nice, of course, but it’s not the main reason I’m doing it.’

B. Craig Little

‘There’s never been that much money at home, especially since Mum and Dad got divorced, so I decided to try to make some myself. I’m only 14, so there are legal restrictions on what kind of work I can do, but I managed to get part-time work in a computer shop. It’s good because it’s something I know about, and it means that Mum doesn’t have to worry about giving me an allowance. I can even help her out with bills occasionally. I don’t spend much each week, so I usually manage to put a little in the bank for a rainy day, as they say.’

C. Naomi Webster

‘Starting at the bottom and working your way up certainly teaches you a lot. It means that I already understand how the place works where the money comes from. I’ve always wanted to go into hairdressing and I think it’s important to start earning your money as soon as you can. I mean, Mum and Dad work for their money, so why shouldn’t I? I don’t think about the future too much – I’m too busy learning and enjoying myself. I never have any money left at the end of the month, but I don’t mind because I know that I spend it on things I enjoy.

D. Neil Chalmers

‘Delivering pizzas wouldn’t be my first choice as a career, but it’s fine for this stage of my life. I get to meet people, even if it is only briefly, and I like to be outdoors. Nobody’s going to get rich doing this, but the money does make a big difference and I notice it at the weekend when I can afford things that maybe others can’t. I think of myself as quite an ambitious person, and I’m planning on studying to be an architect, so I’m not sure this experience is that relevant, really. One thing I’ve learned is that you value money much more when you’ve earned it, and I appreciate the effort my mum and dad put in to make sure the family has enough. The worst thing about the job is the unsociable hours – when everyone’s out partying, I often have to be on my motorbike with a pizza.’

E. Julian Partridge

‘I couldn’t stand the idea of working, so I had to come up with some other way of making money. My parents usually give me what I need, but I was planning a camping holiday with friends and it was important to me that I earned the money somehow. I decided to go to eBay – the website where you can sell all your old stuff to people from around the world. I didn’t think I had anything to sell until my uncle pointed out that I had lots of old action figures. They were still in the boxes, and apparently people collect them. We sat down and worked out what they were worth and I sold them. In the end, we didn’t make as much as I’d hoped, but it was still enough to go on holiday with.’

Chalmers’ first choice as a carrier is delivering pizza because

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. He think that it could be suitable for him at that stage Câu trả lời đúng
b. He could have chance to meet people Câu trả lời không đúng
c. He hasn’t got any other choice
d. He likes to be out door

What does Chalmers think when taking the part-time job?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. He thinks he can afford his mom and dad Câu trả lời không đúng
b. He thinks people make the money much more valuable when they earn it by themselves Câu trả lời đúng
c. He thinks people often are seduced by money and earning money at any price
d. He thinks he is an ambitious person and is easy to be allured by money

In Ferguson’s opinion, the most important thing when going into businesses is…

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. The fund
b. The profit
c. The family support
d. The self confidence Câu trả lời đúng

How are the young people described in the five passages?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. They are very inactive, doubtful but wanna prove themselves that they can earn money at any price
b. They are very active, self confident and wanna prove themselves that they can earn money in any condition Câu trả lời đúng
c. They are of passive thinking, and always like receiving the money from their parents.
d. They are very nice, active thinking and wanna prove themselves that they can do everything at the same time Câu trả lời không đúng

Little got a par-time work when she was 14 and what did she do with her money earned?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Sometime paid the family bill
b. Squandered her money
c. Saved the money for rainy day
d. Both B and C Câu trả lời đúng

What is Ferguson’ first idea when setting up a web?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. To buy products from Hong kong
b. To make profit
c. To sell make-up cheaply to the girl of her age Câu trả lời đúng
d. To order
make-up from Asian countries

For Webster, earning money makes her…

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Gloomy
b. Growing up Câu trả lời đúng
c. Confident Câu trả lời không đúng
d. Joyful

At the beginning stage, she …

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Lend their parents her money
b. Used her own money
c. Borrowed money from her parents Câu trả lời đúng
d. Borrowed money from a bank

By which works does he gain money, in Partridge case?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. By selling his old items to his friends on holiday
b. By collecting action figures on eBay
c. By working for eBay
d. By selling his action figures on eBay Câu trả lời đúng

Bài kiểm tra trắc nghiệm 01

The Global Product – the World as a Single Market

AFor business, the world is becoming a smaller place. Travel and transportation are becoming quicker and easier, communications can be instantaneous to any part of the world and trade barriers are breaking down. Consequently, there are tremendous opportunities for businesses to broaden their markets into foreign countries. The challenge facing those promoting products globally is to determine whether marketing methods should be adapted to different markets based on specific cultural factors.

Đọc – Tiếng Anh 4 – EN32

BMany theorists argue that, with the ‘shrinking of the world, global standardization is inevitable. Over time, and as economies develop, it has been suggested that consumer buying patterns will blend into on another and national differences may disappear. Kellogg, the American breakfast cereal producer, has been very influential in challenging consumption patterns in countries outside the United States. In France, for example, breakfast cereals were almost unheard of, and market research suggested that the market was closed to companies like Kellogg. However, today, there is a demand for breakfast cereal across France. Nevertheless, the standardization of products for worldwide consumption in this way is rarely the most effective strategy as it evident from an analysis of the following key aspects of global marketing.

Đọc – Tiếng Anh 4 – EN32

CFirst of all, it is considered better business practice by many large, established companies to change their products from one country to the next. Take the example of Coca-Cola. The recipe for this drink is change to suit local tastes – the brand in the US is much sweeter than in the UK, whilst in India the product’s herbs and flouring are given more emphasis. In terms of the car industry, it would be too expensive for manufacturers to develop and build completely different vehicles for different markets yet a single global model is likely to appeal to no one. In response to varying needs, Nissan, for example, sells in 75 different markets, but has eight different chassis designs. The Ford Mondeo was designed with key features from different markets in mind in an effort to make its appeal as broad as possible. The best policy, as far as most multi-national companies are concerned, is to adapt their product to a particular market.

Đọc – Tiếng Anh 4 – EN32

DSecondly, it is important to consider whether a product should be launched simultaneously in all countries (known as a ‘sprinkler launch’) or sequentially in one market after another (‘a waterfall launch’). In practice, most companies producing consumer goods tend to launch a new product in one or two markets at a time rather than attempt to launch a product across a range of countries at a single time. Many high-tech products such as Blu-ray players reach the market in Japan before reaching the UK. Hollywood films are often seen in the United States weeks or months before they arrive in other countries.

Đọc – Tiếng Anh 4 – EN32

EThe advantage for firms is that it is easier to launch in one market at a time. Effort and concentration can be focused to ensure the best possible entry into the market. Moreover, for technical products especially, any initial problems become apparent in a single market and can be corrected prior to launch elsewhere. Even though this method can be time-consuming, it is usually a safer approach than a simultaneous launch. Despite this, in certain highly competitive markets such as computer chips, companies such as Intel tend to launch their new products internationally at the same time to keep the product ahead of its competitors.

FThe final consideration when planning to enter a global market, rather than assuming the product will suit all markets is to take cultural differences into account. Prices have to convert to a different currency and any literature has to be translated into a different language. There are also less tangible differences. It is quite possible that common practices in one country can cause offence and have grave consequences for business success in another. In one situation in China, a western businessman caused offence to a group of local delegates because he started to fill out the paperwork immediately after shaking hands on a deal. Completing the legal documents so soon after the negotiations was regarded as undermining the host’s trust. Knowledge about such culture differences is absolutely vital.

Đọc – Tiếng Anh 4 – EN32

GTherefore, if a company is attempting to broaden its operations globally, it must take the time to find out about local customs and methods of business operation. Equally important is to ensure that such information is available to all necessary workers in the organization, For example, in order to attempt to avoid causing offence to passengers from abroad, British Airways aims to raise awareness of cultural differences amongst all its cabin crew.

HIt can be concluded that global standardization of products to ‘fit’ all markets unlikely to be the most viable option. Marketing methods employed will depend on many factors, such as the type of products, the degree of competition, the reputation of the firm and/or the brand, the state of the economy into which the product is to be launched and how and when to launch. In short, the key to marketing success on a global level is to have sufficient information on how cultural differences are likely affect the marketing of a product and then allow the appropriate decisions to be made.

Launching in one market at a time is said to be

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. More complicated but cost effective
b. more simple for firms but time consuming Câu trả lời đúng
c. Harder for firms
d. More ambiguous but safer

What is called “sprinkler launch” is the strategy where…

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. A product should be launched in all countries at a single time Câu trả lời không đúng
b. A product should be launched in one or two countries at a time Câu trả lời đúng
c. A product should be launched in all countries at different stages
d. A product should be launched in all countries at the same time

A businesses are considered better if…

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. They use the local employees
b. They change the products to make difference
c. They know how to adapt their products to a particular market Câu trả lời đúng
d. They sell their products in different countries

Businesses have so many opportunities to expand their markets into foreign country because

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Communications can be instantaneous to any part of the world
b. The world is becoming a smaller place Câu trả lời không đúng
c. Travel and transportation are becoming quicker and easier
d. the process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nation have been so quick in recent years

What is called “water fall launch” is the strategy where…

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. A product should be launched in one country after another Câu trả lời đúng
b. A product should be launched in one or two countries at a time
c. A product should be launched in one or two countries at a time
d. A product should be launched in all countries at a single time

What factor is the most important when the world is shrunk according to the theorists?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Habit of consumption
b. National differences
c. Global standardization Câu trả lời đúng
d. Development of economies

Which factors decide the success of businesses when promoting their products globally?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Cultural factors
b. Methods of marketing Câu trả lời đúng
c. Different product
d. Different markets

Why is globalization said to be a good thing for many developing countries?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Both A,B and C Câu trả lời đúng
b. Because they may export different goods
c. Because they may have access to different markets
d. Because they have the chance to develop their country economically

Bài kiểm tra trắc nghiệm 02

Defusing the Bomb

Synopsis:

Communicating with the irrational customer, client or business associate.

Communicating with someone who is angry is one of the most difficult business challenges a business owner can face. Whether this angry person is a customer, client, an employee or outside third party, being on the receiving end of their heightened emotions is stressful. The challenge of someone pounding their fist, shouting at you or making unfair demands, forces you to respond as a disciplined, controlled and effective communicator.

When you are put face to face with hostility, the natural human response is to react in kind; however, in most situations this is not an effective strategy. The key to breaking the cycle is to establish a mutual understanding. By finding a common ground, you can resolve the conflict and begin to build communication, step by step.

In order to be an effective communicator you need to shift the exchange from the emotional to the rational. When faced with a situation where an angry and demanding individual or group has a list of complaints, the owner/manager needs to communicate both an understanding of their grievances and a willingness to collaborate to address them. The four simple steps to ‘defuse the bomb’ are:

Inquire:

Being a focused listener calls for inquiring about the other person’s issues and concerns. The goal is to not interrupt and to encourage them with eye contact and head nods.

Empathize:

This means to connect with somebody on their emotional level. To relate to them you must first say, “I (appreciate, understand or share) your (frustration, doubt or concern).” Then, you must commiserate by saying how in the past you too have felt similarly.

Ask permission:

Asking whether or not an angry person would like to hear some relevant information puts them in control, and thereby decreases their tension. Permission questions communicate that you are a reasonable person doing your best to reach an understanding.

Explain and offer choices:

It’s soothing for the upset individual to have a choice of solutions explained to them. The more solution options you offer for a course of action, the greater their sense of control becomes. This puts them in a more rational state where you can together begin to resolve the situation.

It is important to realize that this model does not always move in a simple and linear fashion. You may often find yourself in a situation when some residual anger surfaces just when you thought the problem had been solved. You may have to recycle through the model again or spend a longer time on individual steps. For example, an angry customer may take a long time to vent their initial anger.

Remembering that anger is essentially fear turned inside out, you must let them express it all before you can move to a more rational platform of cooperation.

When communicating with these people, business owners should be

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Kind and sympathized
b. Angry and indiscipline
c. Controlled, disciplined and effective Câu trả lời đúng
d. Smooth and nice

One of the secrets to a successful communication to an annoyed customers is to…

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Let them express their felling Câu trả lời không đúng
b. Let them speak out
c. Let them do what they want
d.Let them release their anger Câu trả lời không đúng

The four steps given in the passages are just …

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. An optimal approach that business owner should take account
b. Only a recommendation. Business owner may have other methods suitable for them Câu trả lời đúng
c. A perfect idea for business owner to follow
d. a model for business owner to follow

Four simple steps in communicating with angry customers are recommended in order to…

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Smooth out the problems Câu trả lời đúng
b. Avoid conflict
c. Make differences bigger
d. Create a mutual understanding Câu trả lời không đúng

How is reacting in kind considered when facing the hostility?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Polite response
b. Very ineffective strategy
c. Very effective strategy
d. Very natural response Câu trả lời không đúng

In some cases, what do the irrational customers, clients or businesses associates may react?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. They may make unfair demands
b. They may shout at you
c. They may pound their fist
d. Both A,B and C Câu trả lời đúng

In the process of communicating with angry person a good listener should

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. Focus on the speaker and listen to them without any other gesture of the body
b. Encourage them with eye contact only or pretend to do this
c. Do not interrupt the speaker and make them believe that your are listening to them
d. Interest in their issues and concerns and encourage them with eye contacts, head nods Câu trả lời đúng

When is a good communication set up?

Chọn một câu trả lời:
a. When the communicator prove rational rather than emotional Câu trả lời đúng
b. When the communicator exchange their feeling
c. When the communicator change their attitude
d. When the communicator prove emotional

 

 

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