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LTTN -1
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LTTN- 2

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LTTN- 3

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Text 1  Bad manners at work

Etiquette is the name we give to the rules for being polite in a social group. Business etiquette is important for people who often have to make new contacts and build relationships in their work. Politeness can also help to improve the working environment for people in the same office. Some cultures and situations are formal, which means that we have to follow rules; other cultures and situations are more informal.

Text 2   Office workers “admit being rude”

Most office workers say they are rude or bad-mannered at work. Two out of three workers regularly arrive late for meetings, most ignore emails and three out of four use bad language. In a survey of 1,000 workers, two-thirds say that pressure of work is the reason for bad manners.

Other common examples of bad office etiquette include ignoring colleagues and answering mobile phone calls during meetings. Using mobile phones in meetings is impolite and distracts others, research by the University of Surrey shows. If you respond to call when speaking to somebody, it means that the phone call is more important than the person, the survey said. If you answer a call during a meeting, it could mean that the meeting is not important.

Mr Jacobs, managing director of Office Angels, a recruitment firm say it is easy for people to forget their manners in the working environment, which is often very informal and very busy. Workers can forget proper etiquette such as introducing people at meetings, and this is often bad for working relationships.

Psychologist Dr Colin Gill believes that people are not as polite as they were twenty years ago. He said: ‘Courtesy is no longer something that is so much respected in our society.’ People think it is ‘stuffy to be polite or formal.’

Now some organisations are actually investing money in training their junior managers to be polite. Office Angels is encouraging people to arrive on time for meetings, turn off mobile phones and avoid bad manners at work is such a simple thing to do,’ Mr Jacobs says, ‘ and it can have a dramatic impact on improving your working environment and your relationships with others.’

The aim of the texts is to …………………………………….

Chọn một câu trả lời:

  1. encourage officer’s bad manners at work
  2. reflect the fact of officer’s bad manners at work with illustrations
  3. reflect the fact of officer’s good manners at work with illustrations

LTTN – 4

Circle the answer that matches the meaning of each bold word or phrase.

As more adults get involved with do-it-yourself (DIY) projects, it’s only natural for teens to want projects of their own.

the art or practice of doing one’s own decorating, repairs…

Circle the answer that matches the meaning of each bold word or phrase.

Teens who are looking for a quick afternoon do-it-yourself project would likely enjoy creating items out of duct tape.

a band of cloth

Each bold word below has more than one meaning. Circle the right meaning in the text.

Do-it-yourself projects teach teens important skills, engage their minds in fruitful pursuits and give them tangible rewards for hard work

to take part in

Sea Turtles Feel the Heat

A   Sea Turtles are some of the oldest species in the world. The earliest sea turtles appeared over 200 million years ago. Today, however, sea turtle are in trouble. Their populations are getting smaller due to human activities and climate change.

B   In Australia, conservationists are studying the effects of climate change on sea turtles. They believe global warming may affect sea turtles in several ways. First, warming temperatures lead to rising sea levels. As sea levels rise, beach areas become flooded. Sea turtles lay their eggs in the beach sand. Flooding can destroysea turtle nests and the eggs inside them.

C   Global warming also raises the temperature of sand around a sea turtle’s nest. The temperature of the nest affects the sex of the turtle’s eggs. Warmer temperatures (above 84 degrees Fahrenheit, or 29 degrees Celsius) produce mostly females. Cooler temperatures produce more males. So, as global temperature rise, more female babies will be born. Scientists predict that in 50 years almost all sea turtle babies in northern Australia will be female.

D   To survive these changes, sea turtles will need to adapt. But adapting is difficult because the environmental changes are happening quickly. In addition, sea turtles are more at risk from other dangers, especially ones related to human activities. For example, some populations are getting smaller because of predators brought in by humans. As conservationist Mariana Fuentes says, ‘We can’t be sure if sea turtles will adapt on their own.’ They may need our help to survive.

E   One of Fuentes’s projects is at Turtle Camp, a beach in northern Australia. Here, Fuentes helps to protect turtles that are laying eggs. She works with a team of rangers and researchers. Together, they preventpredators such as wild pigs and dogs from eating the turtles’ eggs. Without the rangers’ help, the turtles were losing up to 90% of their eggs. Now there are fewer predators, so the turtles can safely lay their eggs.

Câu 7

Sea Turtles Feel the Heat

A   Sea Turtles are some of the oldest species in the world. The earliest sea turtles appeared over 200 million years ago. Today, however, sea turtle are in trouble. Their populations are getting smaller due to human activities and climate change.

B   In Australia, conservationists are studying the effects of climate change on sea turtles. They believe global warming may affect sea turtles in several ways. First, warming temperatures lead to rising sea levels. As sea levels rise, beach areas become flooded. Sea turtles lay their eggs in the beach sand. Flooding can destroysea turtle nests and the eggs inside them.

C   Global warming also raises the temperature of sand around a sea turtle’s nest. The temperature of the nest affects the sex of the turtle’s eggs. Warmer temperatures (above 84 degrees Fahrenheit, or 29 degrees Celsius) produce mostly females. Cooler temperatures produce more males. So, as global temperature rise, more female babies will be born. Scientists predict that in 50 years almost all sea turtle babies in northern Australia will be female.

D   To survive these changes, sea turtles will need to adapt. But adapting is difficult because the environmental changes are happening quickly. In addition, sea turtles are more at risk from other dangers, especially ones related to human activities. For example, some populations are getting smaller because of predators brought in by humans. As conservationist Mariana Fuentes says, ‘We can’t be sure if sea turtles will adapt on their own.’ They may need our help to survive.

E   One of Fuentes’s projects is at Turtle Camp, a beach in northern Australia. Here, Fuentes helps to protect turtles that are laying eggs. She works with a team of rangers and researchers. Together, they preventpredators such as wild pigs and dogs from eating the turtles’ eggs. Without the rangers’ help, the turtles were losing up to 90% of their eggs. Now there are fewer predators, so the turtles can safely lay their eggs.

F   In the next few decades, sea turtles will face some tough challenges. With human help, says Fuentes, they will have a better chance to adapt and survive.

Complete the notes with details from the reading.

She’s …………………over her weight.

Obsessed

He……………………in electronics at the university.

Specializes

…………………..is necessary after hard work.

Relaxation

Find the topic sentence the following paragraphs:

Summer is my favorite season. I enjoy summer sports like water skiing and baseball. The weather is usually sunny and hot, so I can go to the beach almost every day. Gardening is my hobby and I spend many summer days working in my garden. Unfortunately, the days pass too quickly in summer.

Summer is my favorite season.

Circle the best title for the reading text.

Color Matters for What You Wear

Clothes are like a second skin. Most likely you feel good when you wear your favorite color. What happens when someone sees you wearing any color – for example blue? Does the color send a message?

What do you think about pink and blue for children?

One of the most common examples of color symbolism in clothing is the custom of using pink for girls and blue for boys, but it wasn’t always this way. This tradition emerged at the turn of the 20th century. Since pink was thought to be a stronger color, it was best suited for boys; blue was more delicate and dainty and best for girls. In 1921, the Women’s Institute for Domestic Science in Pennsylvania endorsed pink for boys, blue for girls.

Even more interesting is the fact that pink is the color for baby boys and blue is the color for baby girls in Belgium today.

Another interesting fact about pink is that pink is a very masculine color in Bermuda. Also, British bankers and barristers have worn pink shirts for decades. Pink goes in and out of fashion in other parts of the world. White is the traditional color for a bride’s wedding gown in the U.S. and most European cultures. White symbolizes purity and innocence.

What about the color worn for weddings and funerals?

In Asia, white is the color of death. This arises from the belief that death is seen as a beginning and that white represents the purity that the deceased brings into the next life. Therefore, brides in Japan and China wear red in traditional wedding ceremonies.

White is also associated with death in India, where widows wear white. Consequently, red or pink saris are the most popular colors for brides.

What about black clothes?

Black symbolizes death and is the traditional color of mourning in Western cultures. Black clothing is associated with powerful forces in many parts of the world. Bad and good Witches, the devil, ninjas, cat burglars, Darth Vader, Cat Woman, and Batman wear black….and so do priests, nuns, judges, mimes, Mennonites, Bedouins, and monks.

Maybe the common thread is that these people are signaling their seriousness of purpose – or the need to be hard to see – or both.

Here’s something else to think about: What happens when the same people wear green? Are they as powerful? Are the priest and nun as respectable?

Colors and what you wear.

 Office workers “admit being rude”

Most office workers say they are rude or bad-mannered at work. Two out of three workers regularly arrive late for meetings, most ignore emails and three out of four use bad language. In a survey of 1,000 workers, two-thirds say that pressure of work is the reason for bad manners.

Other common examples of bad office etiquette include ignoring colleagues and answering mobile phone calls during meetings. Using mobile phones in meetings is impolite and distracts others, research by the University of Surrey shows. If you respond to call when speaking to somebody, it means that the phone call is more important than the person, the survey said. If you answer a call during a meeting, it could mean that the meeting is not important.

Mr Jacobs, managing director of Office Angels, a recruitment firm say it is easy for people to forget their manners in the working environment, which is often very informal and very busy. Workers can forget proper etiquette such as introducing people at meetings, and this is often bad for working relationships.

Psychologist Dr Colin Gill believes that people are not as polite as they were twenty years ago. He said: ‘Courtesy is no longer something that is so much respected in our society.’ People think it is ‘stuffy to be polite or formal.’

Now some organisations are actually investing money in training their junior managers to be polite. Office Angels is encouraging people to arrive on time for meetings, turn off mobile phones and avoid bad manners at work is such a simple thing to do,’ Mr Jacobs says, ‘ and it can have a dramatic impact on improving your working environment and your relationships with others.’

The author wants to ………………………….

give specific examples of bad manners at work

Text 1  Bad manners at work

Etiquette is the name we give to the rules for being polite in a social group. Business etiquette is important for people who often have to make new contacts and build relationships in their work. Politeness can also help to improve the working environment for people in the same office. Some cultures and situations are formal, which means that we have to follow rules; other cultures and situations are more informal.

Text 2   Office workers “admit being rude”

Most office workers say they are rude or bad-mannered at work. Two out of three workers regularly arrive late for meetings, most ignore emails and three out of four use bad language. In a survey of 1,000 workers, two-thirds say that pressure of work is the reason for bad manners.

Other common examples of bad office etiquette include ignoring colleagues and answering mobile phone calls during meetings. Using mobile phones in meetings is impolite and distracts others, research by the University of Surrey shows. If you respond to call when speaking to somebody, it means that the phone call is more important than the person, the survey said. If you answer a call during a meeting, it could mean that the meeting is not important.

Mr Jacobs, managing director of Office Angels, a recruitment firm say it is easy for people to forget their manners in the working environment, which is often very informal and very busy. Workers can forget proper etiquette such as introducing people at meetings, and this is often bad for working relationships.

Psychologist Dr Colin Gill believes that people are not as polite as they were twenty years ago. He said: ‘Courtesy is no longer something that is so much respected in our society.’ People think it is ‘stuffy to be polite or formal.’

Now some organisations are actually investing money in training their junior managers to be polite. Office Angels is encouraging people to arrive on time for meetings, turn off mobile phones and avoid bad manners at work is such a simple thing to do,’ Mr Jacobs says, ‘ and it can have a dramatic impact on improving your working environment and your relationships with others.’

The purpose of some organisations who invest money in training their junior managers to be polite is to ……………………………

improve the working environment and relationships with others

Read the texts and do the activities that follow.

The Olympic Games

During the Olympic Games, people from all over the world come together in the peace and friendship. Some of these people complete for medals. Several million people attend the games, and millions of other people watch them on television.

Why do we have the Olympic Games? How did they begin? The first Olympic Games that we have records of were in Greece in 776 B.C. The games lasted one day. The only event in the first thirteen Olympic Games was a race. Men ran the length or the stadium (about 192 meters). Then, longer running races were added. Through the years, a few other kinds of events, like the long jump, were also added. During this time, the games were for men only, and women could not even watch them. In the year 393, a Roman emperor ended the Olympic Game because the quality of the games became very low. The Olympics did not take place again for 1500 years!

In 1984, Pierre de Coubertin of France helped from the International Olympic Committee, and the modern Olympic Games began. In1896, the games were held again in Athens, Greece. The Greeks built a new stadium for the competition. Three hundred and eleven athletes from thirteen countries competed in many events. The winners became national heroes.

After 1896, the games were held every four years during the summer in different cities around the world. In 1900, the Olympics were in Paris, France, and women competed for the first time. In 1908, in London, England, the first gold medals were given to winning athletes. Before that time, the winners received only silver and bronze medals. The Olympic flag was first introduced in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. The flag has five rings on it. The rings represent the continents of Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and North and South American. Each ring is a different color – blue, yellow, black, green, or red – because the flag of each of the countries that compete in the games has at least one of these colors in it.

The Olympic Winter games began in 1924 in Chamonix, France. Athletes competed in winter events such as skiing, ice skating, and ice hockey. Today, the Winter Games take places every four years. The Summer Games also take place every four years, but not in the same year as the winter events. Both the Summer Games and the Winter Games must have at least fifteen events, and they cannot last more than sixteen days.

Until recently, Olympic competitors could not be professional athletes. All of the athletes in the Olympic Games were amateurs. Today, however, many of the Olympic athletes are professional who play their sports for money during the year. Some people disagree with this idea. They believe that the Olympic game are for amateur athletes, not paid professionals. Other people think that any one can play in the Olympic Games. No matter who the athletes are, millions of people throughout the world enjoy watching the greatest athletic competitions, the Summer Game and the Winter Games of the Olympics.

 

Sea Turtles Feel the Heat

A   Sea Turtles are some of the oldest species in the world. The earliest sea turtles appeared over 200 million years ago. Today, however, sea turtle are in trouble. Their populations are getting smaller due to human activities and climate change.

B   In Australia, conservationists are studying the effects of climate change on sea turtles. They believe global warming may affect sea turtles in several ways. First, warming temperatures lead to rising sea levels. As sea levels rise, beach areas become flooded. Sea turtles lay their eggs in the beach sand. Flooding can destroy sea turtle nests and the eggs inside them.

C   Global warming also raises the temperature of sand around a sea turtle’s nest. The temperature of the nest affects the sex of the turtle’s eggs. Warmer temperatures (above 84 degrees Fahrenheit, or 29 degrees Celsius) produce mostly females. Cooler temperatures produce more males. So, as global temperature rise, more female babies will be born. Scientists predict that in 50 years almost all sea turtle babies in northern Australia will be female.

D   To survive these changes, sea turtles will need to adapt. But adapting is difficult because the environmental changes are happening quickly. In addition, sea turtles are more at risk from other dangers, especially ones related to human activities. For example, some populations are getting smaller because of predators brought in by humans. As conservationist Mariana Fuentes says, ‘We can’t be sure if sea turtles will adapt on their own.’ They may need our help to survive.

E   One of Fuentes’s projects is at Turtle Camp, a beach in northern Australia. Here, Fuentes helps to protect turtles that are laying eggs. She works with a team of rangers and researchers. Together, they prevent predators such as wild pigs and dogs from eating the turtles’ eggs. Without the rangers’ help, the turtles were losing up to 90% of their eggs. Now there are fewer predators, so the turtles can safely lay their eggs.

Write the letter of the correct paragraph (A-E) from the reading next to its main idea.

 Sea Turtles Feel the Heat

A   Sea Turtles are some of the oldest species in the world. The earliest sea turtles appeared over 200 million years ago. Today, however, sea turtle are in trouble. Their populations are getting smaller due to human activities and climate change.

B   In Australia, conservationists are studying the effects of climate change on sea turtles. They believe global warming may affect sea turtles in several ways. First, warming temperatures lead to rising sea levels. As sea levels rise, beach areas become flooded. Sea turtles lay their eggs in the beach sand. Flooding can destroy sea turtle nests and the eggs inside them.

C   Global warming also raises the temperature of sand around a sea turtle’s nest. The temperature of the nest affects the sex of the turtle’s eggs. Warmer temperatures (above 84 degrees Fahrenheit, or 29 degrees Celsius) produce mostly females. Cooler temperatures produce more males. So, as global temperature rise, more female babies will be born. Scientists predict that in 50 years almost all sea turtle babies in northern Australia will be female.

D   To survive these changes, sea turtles will need to adapt. But adapting is difficult because the environmental changes are happening quickly. In addition, sea turtles are more at risk from other dangers, especially ones related to human activities. For example, some populations are getting smaller because of predators brought in by humans. As conservationist Mariana Fuentes says, ‘We can’t be sure if sea turtles will adapt on their own.’ They may need our help to survive.

E   One of Fuentes’s projects is at Turtle Camp, a beach in northern Australia. Here, Fuentes helps to protect turtles that are laying eggs. She works with a team of rangers and researchers. Together, they prevent predators such as wild pigs and dogs from eating the turtles’ eggs. Without the rangers’ help, the turtles were losing up to 90% of their eggs. Now there are fewer predators, so the turtles can safely lay their eggs.

F   In the next few decades, sea turtles will face some tough challenges. With human help, says Fuentes, they will have a better chance to adapt and survive.

Complete the notes with details from the reading.

Read the text and do the activities that follow.

The 1001 night

The Thousand and one nights is probably one of the most famous books in the world. It is a collection of stories first told by travelers from Persia, Arabia, India and China between the ninth and thirteenth centuries. In later years professional storytellers also told the stories in coffee houses in Turkey, Egypt and many other countries. The Thousand and one nights contains well-known stories like Aladdin and Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves, so people often think they are just for children – but they were originally for adults.

Shahrazad’s story

There was once an Indian King called Shahriyar. One day King Shahriyar found his wife with another man so he killed her and her lover. After that the King married a different woman everyday and killed her the next morning before she could stop loving him. This continued for three years.

Shahrazad was the clever and beautiful daughter of the King’s adviser. When her father told her what was happening, she decided to marry the King. Shahrazad’s father tried to stop her because he knew she was going to die. But Shahrazad had a plan to save herself and all the women in the kingdom. The King and Shahrazad got married a few days later.

After the wedding, while the King was drinking with his friends, Shahrazad went to find her sister. ‘I need your help,’ said Shahrazad. ‘Come to the palace this evening and ask me to tell you a story’.

So that night, Shahrazad was getting ready for bed when her sister came to visit her. She began telling her sister a story called The Fisherman and the Genie. While she was telling the story, the King came into the room. He started listening to her story too, and became more and more interested.

Shahrazad continued telling the story all night, but she stopped just before the end and said, ‘The morning’s here, husband. Am I going to die now?’. ‘No, no’, said the King. ‘Tell me the end of the story’. ‘I’ll tell you this evening, but not before’, said Shahrazad with a smile.

That night Shahrazad finished the story – and then immediately began another. This continued night after night. The King never heard the end of a story until the next evening.  He couldn’t kill his wife because he always wanted to know how each story ended.

As time passed, the King fell in love with Shahrazad. He knew he could never kill her because he couldn’t live without her and her stories. To show Shahrazad he really loved her, the King married her again. The stories Shahrazad told the King became the stories of The Thousand and one nights.

Are these following sentences true (T) or false (F)

Read the text and do the activities that follow.

The 1001 night

The Thousand and one nights is probably one of the most famous books in the world. It is a collection of stories first told by travelers from Persia, Arabia, India and China between the ninth and thirteenth centuries. In later years professional storytellers also told the stories in coffee houses in Turkey, Egypt and many other countries. The Thousand and one nights contains well-known stories like Aladdin and Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves, so people often think they are just for children – but they were originally for adults.

Shahrazad’s story

There was once an Indian King called Shahriyar. One day King Shahriyar found his wife with another man so he killed her and her lover. After that the King married a different woman everyday and killed her the next morning before she could stop loving him. This continued for three years.

Shahrazad was the clever and beautiful daughter of the King’s adviser. When her father told her what was happening, she decided to marry the King. Shahrazad’s father tried to stop her because he knew she was going to die. But Shahrazad had a plan to save herself and all the women in the kingdom. The King and Shahrazad got married a few days later.

After the wedding, while the King was drinking with his friends, Shahrazad went to find her sister. ‘I need your help,’ said Shahrazad. ‘Come to the palace this evening and ask me to tell you a story’.

So that night, Shahrazad was getting ready for bed when her sister came to visit her. She began telling her sister a story called The Fisherman and the Genie. While she was telling the story, the King came into the room. He started listening to her story too, and became more and more interested.

Shahrazad continued telling the story all night, but she stopped just before the end and said, ‘The morning’s here, husband. Am I going to die now?’. ‘No, no’, said the King. ‘Tell me the end of the story’. ‘I’ll tell you this evening, but not before’, said Shahrazad with a smile.

That night Shahrazad finished the story – and then immediately began another. This continued night after night. The King never heard the end of a story until the next evening.  He couldn’t kill his wife because he always wanted to know how each story ended.

As time passed, the King fell in love with Shahrazad. He knew he could never kill her because he couldn’t live without her and her stories. To show Shahrazad he really loved her, the King married her again. The stories Shahrazad told the King became the stories of The Thousand and one nights.

Choose the best answer 

Who listened to Shahrazad’s story?

Both

Read the text and do the activities that follow.

Biogas: a Solution to Many Problems

In almost all developing countries, the lack of adequate supplies of cheap, convenient and reliable fuel is a major problem. Rural communities depend largely on kerosene, wood and dung for their cooking and lighting needs. But kerosene is now priced out of reach of many people and wood, except in heavily forested areas, is in short supply. The search for firewood occupies a large part of the working day and has resulted in widespread deforestation.

Dung is in constant supply wherever there are farm animals and, when dried, it is convenient to store and use. But burning dung destroys its value as fertilizer, thus depriving the soil of a much needed source of humus and nitrogen.

Rural areas of developing countries are also plagues by a lack of adequate sanitation. Improper waste disposal spreads disease, contaminates water sources and provides breeding ground for disease-carrying insects.

The problem of improving environmental hygiene, conserving resources and finding alternative sources of fuel may be unrelated. Their solutions, however, are not, as many countries experimenting with biogas technology are discovering. Biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, is produced by the fermentation of organic matter. The process of anaerobic fermentation is a natural one, occurring whenever living matter decomposes. By containing the matter – and the process – in a digester or biogas plant, the combustible gas can be trapped and used as fuel for household lighting and cooking. The digested slurry that remains can be used on the land as a soil conditioner and fertilizer.

Biogas plants have attracted much interest in recent years and they are in use in several Asian countries: 38,000 are reported in rural area of India, 27,000 in Korea and more than 80,000 in China. In most countries, the value of the gas has been the prime factor leading to their adoption: 70 percent of India’s plants, for instance, were built during the energy and fertilizer crisis of 1975-76 – although their use in that country dates back to 1951. similarly in Thailand and Korea, biogas is being investigated as an alternative to costly charcoal and to save compost materials form being burned.

In Japan and China, reducing pollution from animal wastes has been an important factor. Privies, hen houses and pigpens are built in proximity to the fermentation chamber in China. Examinations of the digested slurry have shown that the total number of parasite eggs was reduced by 93.6 per cent, hookworms by 99 per cent and no schistosome flukes were found.

The greatest benefits from biogas systems, however, are probably to be derived from the manorial value of the slurry, although it is not widely used outside of India and China. Vegetable farmers near Calcutta found that the digested slurry produced bigger and better tasting peas than did other fertilizers and the weight of root vegetables increased by nearly 300 per cent.

Then circle the answer that best matches the meaning of each bold word or phrase.

Strawberries are in short supply at the moment.

little of something available

During their vacation, they didn’t have phone service or Internet service

They were in a remote location.

My brother loves to fix cars.

He’s good at repairing mechanical things.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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